Trending Nutrition Controversies #3: Top Controversies in 2021


Monica Aggarwal, Division of Cardiology, University of Florida, Gainesville. Electronic address:
Andrew M. Freeman, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colo.
Emilio Ros, Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona and Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
Kathleen Allen, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH.
Geeta Sikand, Heart Disease Prevention Program, University of California Irvine, Irvine.
Karen Aspry, Division of Cardiology, Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, and Brown University, Providence, RI.
Penny Kris-Etherton, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Penn State University, University Park.
Stephen Devries, Gaples Institute for Integrative Cardiology, Deerfield, Ill; Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.
Koushik Reddy, Division of Cardiology, James A Haley VA Medical Center, University of South Florida, Tampa.
Tamanna Singh, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular, Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
Sheldon E. Litwin, Division of Cardiology, University of South Carolina, Charleston; Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC.
James O'Keefe, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Mo.
Michael Miller, Division of Cardiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.
Bruce Andrus, Division of Cardiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH.
Ron Blankstein, Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.
Columbus Batiste, Division of Cardiology, Kaiser Permanente Riverside Medical Center, Riverside, Calif.
Danielle Belardo, Institute of Plant-Based Medicine, Newport Beach, Calif.
Christopher Wenger, Division of Cardiology, WellSpan Health, York, Penn.
Travis Batts, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center, San Antonio, Tex.
Neal D. Barnard, Adjunct Faculty, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC; Physici Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC.
Beth A. White, Division of Cardiology, Marshall Health/Joan C. Edward School of Medicine, Huntington, WV.
Dean Ornish, Preventive Medicine Research Institute, Sausalito, Calif; Deparment of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco.
Kim A. Williams, Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill.
Robert J. Ostfeld, Division of Cardiology, Montefiore Health System, Bronx, NY.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



The American journal of medicine








Artificial sweeteners; Chocolate; Grass- vs corn-fed meats; Nutrition; Plant-based meats; Plant-based nitrates; Soy


Each year, patients are bombarded with diverging and even contradictory reports concerning the impact of certain additives, foods, and nutrients on cardiovascular health and its risk factors. Accordingly, this third review of nutrition controversies examines the impact of artificial sweeteners, cacao, soy, plant-based meats, nitrates, and meats from grass compared to grain-fed animals on cardiovascular and other health outcomes with the goal of optimizing clinician-led diet counseling.