Title

Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-1-2014

Journal

Progress in Brain Research

Volume

212

Issue

C

DOI

10.1016/B978-0-444-63488-7.00003-3

Keywords

Ambiguus; Apnea; Cardiac; Non-REM; Obstructive; Parasympathetic; REM; Serotonin; Sleep; Vagal

Abstract

© 2014 Elsevier B.V. Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

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