Divergent responses of chondrocytes and endothelial cells to shear stress: Cross-talk among COX-2, the phase 2 response, and apoptosis
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Inflammation; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1; NF-E2 related factor 2; Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; Sulforaphane
Fluid shear exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on endothelial cells by inducing the coordinated expression of phase 2 detoxifying and antioxidant genes. In contrast, high shear is pro-apoptotic in chondrocytes and promotes matrix degradation and cartilage destruction. We have analyzed the mechanisms regulating shear-mediated chondrocyte apoptosis by cDNA microarray technology and bioinformatics. We demonstrate that shear-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 suppresses phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity, which represses antioxidant response element (ARE)/NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated transcriptional response in human chondrocytes. The resultant decrease in antioxidant capacity of sheared chondrocytes contributes to their apoptosis. Phase 2 inducers, and to a lesser extent COX-2-selective inhibitors, negate the shear-mediated suppression of ARE-driven phase 2 activity and apoptosis. The abrogation of shear-induced COX-2 expression by PI3-K activity and/or stimulation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway suggests the existence of PI3-K/Nrf2/ARE negative feedback loops that potentially interfere with c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 activity upstream of COX-2. Reconstructing the signaling network regulating shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis may provide insights to optimize conditions for culturing artificial cartilage in bioreactors and for developing therapeutic strategies for arthritic disorders. © 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
Healy, Z., Lee, N., Gao, X., Goldring, M., Talalay, P., Kensler, T., & Konstantopoulos, K. (2005). Divergent responses of chondrocytes and endothelial cells to shear stress: Cross-talk among COX-2, the phase 2 response, and apoptosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 (39). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506620102