Hypothalamic prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) regulates pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion in mice
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Central glucose sensing; Peripheral hormonal regulation; Sympathetic nervous system
Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuronal functions. Here we report that hypothalamic PREP is predominantly expressed in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH), where it regulates glucose-induced neuronal activation. PREP knockdown mice (Prepgt/gt) exhibited glucose intolerance, decreased fasting insulin, increased fasting glucagon levels, and reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion compared with wild-type controls. Consistent with this, central infusion of a specific PREP inhibitor, S17092, impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin levels in wild-type mice. Arguing further for a central mode of action of PREP, isolated pancreatic islets showed no difference in glucose-induced insulin release between Prepgt/gt and wild-type mice. Furthermore, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies showed no difference between Prepgt/gt and wild-type control mice. Central PREP regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion appears to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system because Prepgt/gt mice have elevated sympathetic outflow and norepinephrine levels in the pancreas, and propranolol treatment reversed glucose intolerance in these mice. Finally, re-expression of PREP by bilateral VMH injection of adeno-associated virus-PREP reversed the glucoseintolerant phenotype of the Prepgt/gt mice. Taken together, our results unmask a previously unknown player in central regulation of glucose metabolism and pancreatic function.
Kim, J., Toda, C., D'Agostino, G., Zeiss, C., DiLeone, R., Elsworth, J., Kibbey, R., Chan, O., Harvey, B., Richie, C., Savolainen, M., Myöhännen, T., Jeong, J., & Diano, S. (2014). Hypothalamic prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) regulates pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111 (32). http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1406000111