Title

Influence of thoracic ramping on whiplash kinematics

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

12-1-2005

Journal

Clinical Biomechanics

Volume

20

Issue

10

DOI

10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.06.011

Keywords

Biomechanics; Cervical spine; Computer model; Parametric study; Thoracic ramping; Whiplash

Abstract

Background. Some experimental whiplash investigations using human volunteers and full-body cadavers reported thoracic ramping, characterized by superior translation and extension rotation of the cervico-thoracic junction. The effect of this phenomenon on cervical spinal kinematics has not been quantitatively determined. Methods. A comprehensively validated computational model exercised in 2.7 m/s rear impact was used to determine effects of superior translation and extension rotation of T1 on cervical segmental kinematics during the retraction phase. Findings. In general, thoracic ramping had a minimal effect on cervical intervertebral kinematics during retraction. Interpretation. Results of the present study demonstrated that magnitude of thoracic ramping plays a minimal role in the whiplash injury mechanism due to decreased effect on cervical segmental kinematics. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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