Influence of thoracic ramping on whiplash kinematics
Biomechanics; Cervical spine; Computer model; Parametric study; Thoracic ramping; Whiplash
Background. Some experimental whiplash investigations using human volunteers and full-body cadavers reported thoracic ramping, characterized by superior translation and extension rotation of the cervico-thoracic junction. The effect of this phenomenon on cervical spinal kinematics has not been quantitatively determined. Methods. A comprehensively validated computational model exercised in 2.7 m/s rear impact was used to determine effects of superior translation and extension rotation of T1 on cervical segmental kinematics during the retraction phase. Findings. In general, thoracic ramping had a minimal effect on cervical intervertebral kinematics during retraction. Interpretation. Results of the present study demonstrated that magnitude of thoracic ramping plays a minimal role in the whiplash injury mechanism due to decreased effect on cervical segmental kinematics. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stemper, B., Yoganandan, N., Rao, R., & Pintar, F. (2005). Influence of thoracic ramping on whiplash kinematics. Clinical Biomechanics, 20 (10). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.06.011