A phase 1 study of the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a Schistosoma mansoni vaccine with or without glucopyranosyl lipid A aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) in healthy adults from a non-endemic area
Adjuvant; Glucopyranosyl lipid A; Immune responses; Immunization; Schistosoma mansoni (Sm); Schistosomiasis; Sm tetraspanin 2 (Sm-TSP-2)
Background: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) is a chronic, debilitating and potentially deadly neglected tropical disease. The licensure of a vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis would represent a major breakthrough in public health. Methods: The safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Sm vaccine were assessed in this phase I, double-blind, dose-escalation trial. Seventy-two healthy Sm-naïve 18–50 year olds were randomized to receive 3 doses ∼ 8 weeks apart of saline placebo, or 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of recombinant Sm-Tetraspanin-2 vaccine formulated on aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Sm-TSP-2/Al) with or without 5 µg of glucopyranosyl lipid A aqueous formulation (GLA-AF). Clinical and serologic responses were assessed for 1 year after dose 3. Results: Vaccines were safe and well-tolerated. The most common reactions were injection site tenderness and pain, and headache and fatigue. Tenderness and pain were more frequent in groups receiving vaccine with GLA-AF than placebo (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Injection site reactions among those given Sm-TSP-2/Al with GLA-AF lasted 1.22 and 1.33 days longer than those receiving Sm-TSP-2/Al without GLA-AF or placebo (p < 0.001 for both). Dose- and adjuvant-related increases in serum IgG against Sm-TSP-2 were observed. Peak IgG levels occurred 14 days after dose 3. Seroresponse frequencies were low among recipients of Sm-TSP-2/Al without GLA-AF, but higher among subjects receiving 30 µg or 100 µg of Sm-TSP-2/Al with GLA-AF. More seroresponses were observed among those given 30 µg or 100 µg of Sm-TSP-2/Al with GLA-AF compared to placebo (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). Seroresponse frequencies were 0%, 30%, 50%, and 89%, respectively, among those given placebo, or 10 µg, 30 µg or 100 µg of Sm-TSP-2/Al with GLA-AF, suggesting a dose–response relationship for Sm-TSP-2/Al with GLA-AF (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Sm-TSP-2/Al with or without GLA-AF was safe and well tolerated in a Sm-naïve population. A vaccine like the one under development may represent our best hope to eliminating this neglected tropical disease.
Keitel, W., Potter, G., Diemert, D., Bethony, J., El Sahly, H., Kennedy, J., Patel, S., Plieskatt, J., Jones, W., Deye, G., Bottazzi, M., Hotez, P., & Atmar, R. (2019). A phase 1 study of the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a Schistosoma mansoni vaccine with or without glucopyranosyl lipid A aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) in healthy adults from a non-endemic area. Vaccine, 37 (43). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.075