microRNA Diagnostics and Therapeutics
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well known to influence the expression of the genes that regulate critical cellular functions. Various reports have suggested that they play critical roles in breast cancer metabolism through the regulation of various metabolic pathways, including the metabolism of glucose, lipids, glycolysis and the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). miRNAs regulate the metabolic process by targeting key molecules (enzymes, kinases transporters) or by modifying the expression of key transcription molecules. In addition, miRNAs can indirectly regulate mRNA translation by targeting chromatin-remodeling enzymes. Furthermore, miRNAs influence the expression of both oncogenes and tumor suppressors and have a major impact on PI3K/AKT, HIF, and MYC signal transduction, which contributes to the metabolic phenotype in human cancer. Although human epidermal growth factor and endocrine therapies have been effective in treating breast cancer, for locally advanced and distant metastases mortality remains high. Drug resistance and recurrence remain major hurdles for advanced breast cancer therapy. Given the critical influence of metabolic reprogramming in the progression of neoplasm, tumorigenesis and metastasis, research should focus on novel targets of metabolic enzymes to reverse drug resistance and improve overall survival rates. Blocking the miRNAs that contribute to metabolic reprogramming or the use of exogenous miRNAs as antisense oligonucleotides, may be an effective way to treat aggressive, chemo-resistant cancers. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanism of action of miRNAs in altering the metabolism of cancer cells and presents possible therapeutic approaches to treating breast cancers that are resistant to current drugs.
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Qattan, A. (2017). Metabolic Reprogramming of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: The Role of miRNAs. microRNA Diagnostics and Therapeutics, 3 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/micrnat-2017-0001