Targeting Macrophages as a Therapeutic Option in Coronavirus Disease 2019
Frontiers in Pharmacology
coronavirus; COVID-19; cytokine storm; fibrosis; macrophage
© Copyright © 2020 Gracia-Hernandez, Sotomayor and Villagra. Immune cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are characterized by their diversity, plasticity, and variety of functions. Among them, macrophages play a central role in antiviral responses, tissue repair, and fibrosis. Macrophages can be reprogrammed by environmental cues, thus changing their phenotype during an antiviral immune response as the viral infection progresses. While M1-like macrophages are essential for the initial inflammatory responses, M2-like macrophages are critical for tissue repair after pathogen clearance. Numerous reports have evaluated the detrimental effects that coronaviruses, e.g., HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have on the antiviral immune response and macrophage functions. In this review, we have addressed the breadth of macrophage phenotypes during the antiviral response and provided an overview of macrophage-coronavirus interactions. We also discussed therapeutic approaches to target macrophage-induced complications, currently under evaluation in clinical trials for coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Additionally, we have proposed alternative approaches that target macrophage recruitment, interferon signaling, cytokine storm, pulmonary fibrosis, and hypercoagulability.
Gracia-Hernandez, M., Sotomayor, E., & Villagra, A. (2020). Targeting Macrophages as a Therapeutic Option in Coronavirus Disease 2019. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.577571