ILAE neuroimaging task force highlight: Subcortical laminar heterotopia


Burkhard S. Kasper, Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
John Archer, Department Medicine, Austin Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Boris C. Bernhardt, Multimodal Imaging and Connectome Analysis Laboratory, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Lorenzo Caciagli, Department of Neurology, Bern University Hospital, Switzerland.
Fernando Cendes, Department of Neurology, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil.
Yotin Chinvarun, Department of Neurology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
Luis Concha, Institute of Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
Paolo Federico, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
William Gaillard, Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Hospital, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
Eliane Kobayashi, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Godwin Ogbole, Department of Radiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Neurology Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
Irene Wang, Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Shuang Wang, Department of Neurology and Epilepsy Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Gavin P. Winston, Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Stefan Rampp, Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Epileptic disorders : international epilepsy journal with videotape








double cortex; epilepsy; neuroimaging; subcortical band heterotopia; subcortical laminar heterotopia


The ILAE Neuroimaging Task Force publishes educational case reports that highlight basic aspects of neuroimaging in epilepsy consistent with the ILAE's educational mission. Subcortical laminar heterotopia, also known as subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex," is an intriguing and rare congenital malformation of cortical development. SBH lesions are part of a continuum best designated as agyria-pachygyria-band-spectrum. The malformation is associated with epilepsy that is often refractory, as well as variable degrees of developmental delay. Moreover, in an increasing proportion of cases, a distinct molecular-genetic background can be found. Diagnosing SBH can be a major challenge for many reasons, including more subtle lesions, and "non-classic" or unusual MRI-appearances. By presenting an illustrative case, we address the challenges and needs of diagnosing and treating SBH patients in epilepsy, especially the value of high-resolution imaging and specialized MRI-protocols.