Development and validation of a risk calculator for postoperative diplopia following orbital fracture repair in adults

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Scientific reports








Postoperative diplopia is the most common complication following orbital fracture repair (OFR). Existing evidence on its risk factors is based on single-institution studies and small sample sizes. Our study is the first multi-center study to develop and validate a risk calculator for the prediction of postoperative diplopia following OFR. We reviewed trauma patients who underwent OFR at two high-volume trauma centers (2015-2019). Excluded were patients < 18 years old and those with postoperative follow-up < 2 weeks. Our primary outcome was incidence/persistence of postoperative diplopia at ≥ 2 weeks. A risk model for the prediction of postoperative diplopia was derived using a development dataset (70% of population) and validated using a validation dataset (remaining 30%). The C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to assess the risk model accuracy. A total of n = 254 adults were analyzed. The factors that predicted postoperative diplopia were: age at injury, preoperative enophthalmos, fracture size/displacement, surgical timing, globe/soft tissue repair, and medial wall involvement. Our predictive model had excellent discrimination (C-statistic = 80.4%), calibration (P = 0.2), and validation (C-statistic = 80%). Our model rules out postoperative diplopia with a 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for a probability < 8.9%. Our predictive model rules out postoperative diplopia with an 87.9% sensitivity and a 95.8% NPV for a probability < 13.4%. We designed the first validated risk calculator that can be used as a powerful screening tool to rule out postoperative diplopia following OFR in adults.


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