Altered larval activation response associated with multidrug resistance in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

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Journal Article

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Ancylostoma caninum; benzimidazole; dog hookworm; macrocyclic lactone; multiple anthelmintic drug resistant; pyrantel


Parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes pose significant health risks to humans, livestock, and companion animals, and their control relies heavily on the use of anthelmintic drugs. Overuse of these drugs has led to the emergence of resistant nematode populations. Herein, a naturally occurring isolate (referred to as BCR) of the dog hookworm, , that is resistant to 3 major classes of anthelmintics is characterized. Various drug assays were used to determine the resistance of BCR to thiabendazole, ivermectin, moxidectin and pyrantel pamoate. When compared to a drug-susceptible isolate of , BCR was shown to be significantly resistant to all 4 of the drugs tested. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms have been shown to impart benzimidazole resistance, including the F167Y mutation in the -tubulin isotype 1 gene, which was confirmed to be present in BCR through molecular analysis. The frequency of the resistant allele in BCR was 76.3% following its first passage in the lab, which represented an increase from approximately 50% in the founding hookworm population. A second, recently described mutation in codon 134 (Q134H) was also detected at lower frequency in the BCR population. Additionally, BCR exhibits an altered larval activation phenotype compared to the susceptible isolate, suggesting differences in the signalling pathways involved in the activation process which may be associated with resistance. Further characterization of this isolate will provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and tetrahydropyrimidine anthelmintics.


Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine