Safety and efficacy of zilucoplan in patients with generalised myasthenia gravis (RAISE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study
The Lancet. Neurology
BACKGROUND: Generalised myasthenia gravis is a chronic, unpredictable, and debilitating rare disease, often accompanied by high treatment burden and with an unmet need for more efficacious and well tolerated treatments. Zilucoplan is a subcutaneous, self-administered macrocyclic peptide complement C5 inhibitor. We aimed to assess safety, efficacy, and tolerability of zilucoplan in patients with acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (AChR)-positive generalised myasthenia gravis. METHODS: RAISE was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial that was done at 75 sites in Europe, Japan, and North America. We enrolled patients (aged 18-74 years) with AChR-positive generalised myasthenia gravis (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America disease class II-IV), a myasthenia gravis activities of daily living (MG-ADL) score of least 6, and a quantitative myasthenia gravis score of at least 12. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous zilucoplan 0·3 mg/kg once daily by self-injection, or matched placebo, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 12 in MG-ADL score in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-dosing MG-ADL score). Safety was mainly assessed by the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in all patients who had received at least one dose of zilucoplan or placebo. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04115293. An open-label extension study is ongoing (NCT04225871). FINDINGS: Between Sept 17, 2019, and Sept 10, 2021, 239 patients were screened for the study, of whom 174 (73%) were eligible. 86 (49%) patients were randomly assigned to zilucoplan 0·3 mg/kg and 88 (51%) were assigned to placebo. Patients assigned to zilucoplan showed a greater reduction in MG-ADL score from baseline to week 12, compared with those assigned to placebo (least squares mean change -4·39 [95% CI -5·28 to -3·50] vs -2·30 [-3·17 to -1·43]; least squares mean difference -2·09 [-3·24 to -0·95]; p=0·0004). TEAEs occurred in 66 (77%) patients in the zilucoplan group and in 62 (70%) patients in the placebo group. The most common TEAE was injection-site bruising (n=14 [16%] in the zilucoplan group and n=8 [9%] in the placebo group). Incidences of serious TEAEs and serious infections were similar in both groups. One patient died in each group; neither death (COVID-19 [zilucoplan] and cerebral haemorrhage [placebo]) was considered related to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Zilucoplan treatment showed rapid and clinically meaningful improvements in myasthenia gravis-specific efficacy outcomes, had a favourable safety profile, and was well tolerated, with no major safety findings. Zilucoplan is a new potential treatment option for a broad population of patients with AChR-positive generalised myasthenia gravis. The long-term safety and efficacy of zilucoplan is being assessed in an ongoing open-label extension study. FUNDING: UCB Pharma.
Howard, James F.; Bresch, Saskia; Genge, Angela; Hewamadduma, Channa; Hinton, John; Hussain, Yessar; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Kaminski, Henry J.; Maniaol, Angelina; Mantegazza, Renato; Masuda, Masayuki; Sivakumar, Kumaraswamy; Śmiłowski, Marek; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Vu, Tuan; Weiss, Michael D.; Zajda, Małgorzata; Boroojerdi, Babak; Brock, Melissa; de la Borderie, Guillemette; Duda, Petra W.; Lowcock, Romana; Vanderkelen, Mark; and Leite, M Isabel, "Safety and efficacy of zilucoplan in patients with generalised myasthenia gravis (RAISE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study" (2023). GW Authored Works. Paper 2980.