Title

Defining the optimal historical control group for a phase 1 trial of mesenchymal stromal cell delivery through cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates and infants

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

8-22-2022

Journal

Cardiology in the young

DOI

10.1017/S1047951122002633

Keywords

CHD; clinical trial; patient outcome assessment

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery through Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery study is a prospective, open-label, single-centre, dose-escalation phase 1 trial assessing the safety/feasibility of delivering mesenchymal stromal cells to neonates/infants during cardiac surgery. Outcomes will be compared with historical data from a similar population. We aim to define an optimal control group for use in the Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery through Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery trial. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent a two-ventricle repair without aortic arch reconstruction within the first 6 months of life between 2015 and 2020 were studied using the same inclusion/exclusion criteria as the Phase 1 Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Delivery through Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery trial (n = 169). Patients were allocated into one of three diagnostic groups: ventricular septal defect type, Tetralogy of Fallot type, and transposition of the great arteries type. To determine era effect, patients were analysed in two groups: Group A (2015-2017) and B (2018-2020). In addition to biological markers, three post-operative scoring methods (inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores and the Pediatric Risk of Mortality-III) were assessed. RESULTS: All values for three scoring systems were consistent with complexity of cardiac anomalies. Max inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores demonstrated significant differences between all diagnosis groups, confirming high sensitivity. Despite no differences in surgical factors between era groups, we observed lower inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores in group B, consistent with improved post-operative course in recent years at our centre. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies confirm max inotropic and vasoactive-inotropic scores as important quantitative measures after neonatal/infant cardiac surgery. Clinical outcomes should be compared within diagnostic groupings. The optimal control group should include only patients from a recent era. This initial study will help to determine the sample size of future efficacy/effectiveness studies.

Department

Pediatrics

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