Journal of the American Heart Association
Background The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an objective tool for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment.
Methods and Results We evaluated distribution of ECG abnormalities and risk factors for developing new abnormalities in 1314 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. Annual ECGs were centrally read. ECG abnormalities were classified as major and minor according to the Minnesota ECG Classification. At EDIC year 1 (baseline), 356 (27.1%) of the participants had at least 1 ECG abnormality (major or minor) whereas 26 (2%) had at least one major abnormality. During 16 years of follow‐up, 1016 (77.3%) participants developed at least 1 new ECG abnormality (major or minor), whereas 172 (13.1%) developed at least 1 new major abnormality. Independent risk factors for developing new major ECG abnormalities were: age, current smoking, increased systolic blood pressure, and higher glycosylated hemoglobin (hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI]: 1.04 [1.02–1.06] per 1‐year increase, 1.75 [1.22–2.53], 1.03 [1.01–1.05] per 1 mm Hg increase, and 1.16 [1.04–1.29] per 10% increase, respectively). Independent risk factors for developing any new ECG abnormalities (major or minor) were age and systolic blood pressure (HR [95% CI]: 1.02 [1.01–1.03] per 1‐year increase and 1.01 [1.00–1.02] per 1 mm Hg increase, respectively).
Conclusions New ECG abnormalities commonly occur in the course of T1D, consistent with the recognized increasing risk for CVD as patients age. Advanced age, increased systolic blood pressure, smoking, and higher HbA1c are independent risk factor for developing major ECG abnormalities, which underscores the importance of tight glucose control in T1D in addition to management of common CVD risk factors.
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Soliman, E., Backlund, J., Bebu, I., Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Cleary, P. A., & Lachin, J. M. (2016). Progression of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes During 16 Years of Follow‐up: The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study. Journal of the American Heart Association, (). http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.002882