Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health


Volume 66 Suppl 2

Inclusive Pages




Community mobilisation interventions for HIV prevention among female sex workers (FSWs) aim to organise FSWs for collective action and challenge the structures of power that underlie HIV risk. Assessing intervention impact is challenging because the importance of direct individual exposure to intervention components may decrease over time as change occurs at social-normative, policy and other structural levels. In this paper, the authors examine changes over time in consistent condom use among FSWs in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, the location of a long-standing community mobilisation intervention.


The authors analyse cross-sectional data collected among FSWs at three time points (n=2276) using respondent-driven sampling. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of programme exposure with consistent condom use and whether this association varied over time.


The proportion of FSWs having no exposure or only receptive exposure to the intervention decreased over time, while active utilisation increased from 19.4% in 2006 to 48.5% in 2009–2010. Consistent condom use with clients also increased from 56.3% in 2006 to 75.3% in 2009–2010. Multivariate analysis showed that age, age at start of sex work, venue, living conditions and programme exposure were significantly associated with condom use. The positive association between programme exposure and consistent condom use did not vary significantly over time.


Findings indicate improvements in HIV risk reduction behaviour among FSWs and suggest that the intervention has substantial reach in the FSW population. The intervention's strategies may be contributing to population-level HIV risk reduction among FSWs.


Reproduced with permission of the BMJ Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Peer Reviewed


Open Access