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The use of the minimally trained, low wage clinical non-licensed personnel (CNLP), who perform clinical tasks under the supervision of registered nurses (RNs) or other licensed clinical providers, has been a primary strategy for hospitals both to manage professional shortages and reduce costs (Huston 1996; Zimmerman 2000; Orne et al. 1998; Keenan 2003). This study examined the nurse-related clinical non-licensed personnel (CNLP) staffing in U.S. hospitals between 2010 and 2014, in terms of their job categories, staffing trends, and relationship with registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) staffing. Key Questions:

  1. How were CNLPs used in hospitals in 2014 in comparison to registered nurse (RN) and licensed practice nurse (LPN) staffing levels?
  2. How did the variations in staffing for these CNLP groups correlate with RN and LPN staffing, as well as other factors such as patient mix? How have these relationships changed over time?


Abstract also available for download.

This study was published in: Li S, Pittman P, Han X, Lowe T. 2017. Nurse-Related Clinical Nonlicensed Personnel in U.S. Hospitals and Their Relationship with Nurse Staffing Levels. Health Services Research, 52(S1): 422-436. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12655

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