Occupational lead exposure and strabismus in offspring: A case-control study
American Journal of Epidemiology
Environmental exposure; Esotropia; Lead; Pregnancy; Strabismus
The authors conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the association between strabismus and parental occupational lead exposure. Cases were children diagnosed with nonrestrictive strabismus between 1985 and 1986 at Baltimore, Maryland-area pediatric ophthalmology practices and clinics (n = 377). Controls were matched for age and hospital of birth (n = 377). Jobs held by parents were assessed for lead exposure by industrial hygienists. The time window for lead exposure was defined as the period from conception through age 9 months. The unadjusted odds ratio for maternal lead exposure and the esotropic form of strabismus was 2.6 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.4-27). Unadjusted odds ratios for paternal occupational lead exposure and esotropia were 1.0 (95% Cl 0.5-2.1) for low exposure, 2.1 (95- Cl 0.9-5.3) for moderate exposure, and 1.2 (95% Cl 0.4-3.3) for high exposure. The study results suggest the possibility of a weak association between paternal lead exposure and strabismus in offspring. Am J Epidemiol 1991 ;133:351-6. © 1991 by The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health.
Hakim, R., Stewart, W., Canner, J., & Tielsch, J. (1991). Occupational lead exposure and strabismus in offspring: A case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 133 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115888