The context and consequences of ocular injuries from air guns
American Journal of Ophthalmology
There is little available information on the context of air-gun inflicted ocular injuries. To address this need, we performed a systematic telephone survey of victims of severe air-gun ocular injuries, collected between January 1986 and August 1992, through the auspices of the National Eye Trauma System and the Alabama Eye Injury Registry. One hundred forty interviews were completed with injury victims or their parents. Pump-action rifles with BB ammunition were the most common weapons. Victims and shooters were predominantly male (91% and 89%, respectively) and their mean age was 13 years. Of the injuries, 95% were inflicted by individuals known to the victim; 40% of these were relatives. People were the intended targets in 45% of the injuries. Ricochets accounted for 26% of the injuries. Of those victims with penetrating injuries, 84% had visual acuity less than 20/200 despite numerous surgical attempts. Adults were present at the scene of the injury in only 11% of the incidents, implying that unrestricted access to these weapons by children is likely the principal risk factor for injury.
Schein, O., Enger, C., & Tielsch, J. (1994). The context and consequences of ocular injuries from air guns. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 117 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9394(14)70011-X