Prevalence of Refractive Error among Preschool Children in an Urban Population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study
Purpose: To determine the age-specific prevalence of refractive errors in white and African-American preschool children. Design: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based evaluation of the prevalence of ocular disorders in children aged 6 to 71 months in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants: Among 4132 children identified, 3990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2546 children (62%) were examined. Methods: Cycloplegic autorefraction was attempted in all children with the use of a Nikon Retinomax K-Plus 2 (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). If a reliable autorefraction could not be obtained after 3 attempts, cycloplegic streak retinoscopy was performed. Main Outcome Measures: Mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error, astigmatism, and prevalence of higher refractive errors among African-American and white children. Results: The mean SE of right eyes was +1.49 diopters (D) (standard deviation [SD] = 1.23) in white children and +0.71 D (SD = 1.35) in African-American children (mean difference of 0.78 D; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.89). Mean SE refractive error did not decline with age in either group. The prevalence of myopia of 1.00 D or more in the eye with the lesser refractive error was 0.7% in white children and 5.5% in African-American children (relative risk [RR], 8.01; 95% CI, 3.70-17.35). The prevalence of hyperopia of +3 D or more in the eye with the lesser refractive error was 8.9% in white children and 4.4% in African-American children (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.68). The prevalence of emmetropia (<-1.00 D to <+1.00 D) was 35.6% in white children and 58.0% in African-American children (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.49-1.80). On the basis of published prescribing guidelines, 5.1% of the children would have benefited from spectacle correction. However, only 1.3% had been prescribed correction. Conclusions: Significant refractive errors are uncommon in this population of urban preschool children. There was no evidence for a myopic shift over this age range in this cross-sectional study. A small proportion of preschool children would likely benefit from refractive correction, but few have had this prescribed. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2009 American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Giordano, L., Friedman, D., Repka, M., Katz, J., Ibironke, J., Hawes, P., & Tielsch, J. (2009). Prevalence of Refractive Error among Preschool Children in an Urban Population: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology, 116 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.12.030