Effect of a Coordinated Community and Chronic Care Model Team Intervention vs Usual Care on Systolic Blood Pressure in Patients With Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: The SUCCEED Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA network open
Importance: Few stroke survivors meet recommended cardiovascular goals, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations, such as Black or Hispanic individuals, or socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Objective: To determine if a chronic care model-based, community health worker (CHW), advanced practice clinician (APC; including nurse practitioners or physician assistants), and physician team intervention improves risk factor control after stroke in a safety-net setting (ie, health care setting where all individuals receive care, regardless of health insurance status or ability to pay). Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included participants recruited from 5 hospitals serving low-income populations in Los Angeles County, California, as part of the Secondary Stroke Prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic Care Model Teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED) clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were age 40 years or older; experience of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) no more than 90 days prior; systolic blood pressure (BP) of 130 mm Hg or greater or 120 to 130 mm Hg with history of hypertension or using hypertensive medications; and English or Spanish language proficiency. The exclusion criterion was inability to consent. Among 887 individuals screened for eligibility, 542 individuals were eligible, and 487 individuals were enrolled and randomized, stratified by stroke type (ischemic or TIA vs hemorrhagic), language (English vs Spanish), and site to usual care vs intervention in a 1:1 fashion. The study was conducted from February 2014 to September 2018, and data were analyzed from October 2018 to November 2020. Interventions: Participants randomized to intervention were offered a multimodal coordinated care intervention, including hypothesized core components (ie, ≥3 APC clinic visits, ≥3 CHW home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program workshops), and additional telephone visits, protocol-driven risk factor management, culturally and linguistically tailored education materials, and self-management tools. Participants randomized to the control group received usual care, which varied by site but frequently included a free BP monitor, self-management tools, and linguistically tailored information materials. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in systolic BP at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, body mass index, antithrombotic adherence, physical activity level, diet, and smoking status at 12 months. Potential mediators assessed included access to care, health and stroke literacy, self-efficacy, perceptions of care, and BP monitor use. Results: Among 487 participants included, the mean (SD) age was 57.1 (8.9) years; 317 (65.1%) were men, and 347 participants (71.3%) were Hispanic, 87 participants (18.3%) were Black, and 30 participants (6.3%) were Asian. A total of 246 participants were randomized to usual care, and 241 participants were randomized to the intervention. Mean (SD) systolic BP improved from 143 (17) mm Hg at baseline to 133 (20) mm Hg at 12 months in the intervention group and from 146 (19) mm Hg at baseline to 137 (22) mm Hg at 12 months in the usual care group, with no significant differences in the change between groups. Compared with the control group, participants in the intervention group had greater improvements in self-reported salt intake (difference, 15.4 [95% CI, 4.4 to 26.0]; P = .004) and serum CRP level (difference in log CRP, -0.4 [95% CI, -0.7 to -0.1] mg/dL; P = .003); there were no differences in other secondary outcomes. Although 216 participants (89.6%) in the intervention group received some of the 3 core components, only 35 participants (14.5%) received the intended full dose. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial of a complex multilevel, multimodal intervention did not find vascular risk factor improvements beyond that of usual care; however, further studies may consider testing the SUCCEED intervention with modifications to enhance implementation and participant engagement. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01763203.
Towfighi, A., Cheng, E., Ayala-Rivera, M., Barry, F., McCreath, H., Ganz, D., Lee, M., Sanossian, N., Mehta, B., Dutta, T., Razmara, A., Bryg, R., Song, S., Willis, P., Wu, S., Ramirez, M., Richards, A., & Jackson, N. (2021). Effect of a Coordinated Community and Chronic Care Model Team Intervention vs Usual Care on Systolic Blood Pressure in Patients With Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: The SUCCEED Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA network open, 4 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36227