Smoking and cessation-related attitudes among men who have sex with men in the country of Georgia

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV




Comorbid conditions; global health; health disparities; HIV; low- and middle-income countries; sexual minorities; tobacco use


© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- or middle-income countries, smoking and related factors have been understudied. We examined correlates of smoking status, level, and importance and confidence regarding quitting among 608 MSM in the country of Georgia recruited in June-September, 2016 (493 without HIV via peer referral in 3 Georgian cities; 115 with HIV via the National AIDS Center). Median age was 26 years, 78.6% reported current (past 30-day) alcohol use, and 22.4% reported past-year illicit drug use. Overall, 73.8% reported current smoking; of these, 87.1% smoked daily, mean cigarettes per day (cpd) was 19.8, 64.6% smoked ≤30 min of waking, and mean quitting importance and confidence were 6.8 and 6.4 (0 = not at all to 10 = extremely), respectively. Multivariable analyses indicated that current smoking correlated with past-month alcohol and past-year illicit drug use (p’s <.001). Among smokers, cpd correlated with being older and smoking within 30 min of waking; greater quitting importance (≥7) correlated with higher education and no illicit substance use; and greater quitting confidence (≥7) was associated with fewer cpd, smoking ≤30 min of waking, and regional versus capital city residence. Given these findings, addressing tobacco and other substance use among MSM in Georgia is critical.