Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology
Adult; Albuminuria; Angina Pectoris; Cardiovascular Diseases; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Coronary Artery Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Infarction; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Stroke; Vascular Calcification; Young Adult
Background and objectives In trials of people with type 2 diabetes, albuminuria reduction with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors is associated with lower risks of cardiovascular events and CKD progression. We tested whether progression or remission of microalbuminuria is associated with cardiovascular and renal risk in a well characterized cohort of type 1 diabetes.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements We studied 1441 participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was quantified annually or biennially for up to 30 years. For each participant, albuminuria status was defined over time as normoalbuminuria (AER continuously <30 mg/d), sustained microalbuminuria (AER, 30–299 mg/d on two consecutive visits), macroalbuminuria (AER≥300 mg/d), or remitted microalbuminuria (transition from sustained microalbuminuria to AER<30 mg/d on two consecutive visits). We tested associations of time-updated albuminuria status with adjudicated clinical cardiovascular events, the development of reduced GFR (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 on two consecutive visits), and subclinical cardiovascular disease.
Results At least one cardiovascular event occurred in 184 participants, and 98 participants developed reduced eGFR. Compared with normoalbuminuria, sustained microalbuminuria, remitted microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria were each associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]: 1.79 [1.13 to 2.85], 2.62 [1.68 to 4.07], and 2.65 [1.68 to 4.19], respectively) and reduced eGFR (adjusted HRs [95% CIs], 5.26 [2.43 to 11.41], 4.36 [1.80 to 10.57], and 54.35 [30.79 to 95.94], respectively). Compared with sustained microalbuminuria, remission to normoalbuminuria was not associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.68 to 2.59) or reduced eGFR (adjusted HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 0.56 to 5.49). Compared with normoalbuminuria, sustained microalbuminuria, remitted microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria were associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness, and macroalbuminuria was associated with a greater degree of coronary artery calcification.
Conclusions In type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria are associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease and reduced eGFR, but achieving a remission of established microalbuminuria to normoalbuminuria does not appear to improve outcomes.
de Boer, I., Gao, X., Cleary, P., Bebu, I., Lachin, J., Molitch, M., Orchard, T., Paterson, A., Perkins, B., Steffes, M., & Zinman, B. (2016). Albuminuria Changes and Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes: The DCCT/EDIC Study.. Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology, 11 (11). http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.02870316