Immune complexes and the risk of CVD in type 1 diabetes
We investigated whether the composition of modified forms of LDL in circulating immune complexes (LDL-ICs) was associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, including any CVD, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), myocardial infarction (MI), and coronary artery disease, in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our results demonstrate that the baseline levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL), MDA-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), and advanced glycosylation-modified LDL (AGE-LDL) in circulating ICs were associated with the four CVD outcomes in unadjusted models, and adjustment by age and mean HbA1c only resulted in minimal reduction of these associations. After adjustments were made for other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly LDL cholesterol, oxLDL-IC and MDA-LDL-IC remained independently associated with the risk of CVD, and oxLDL-IC was independently associated with the risk of MACCE and MI. In the majority of cases, the baseline levels of modified LDL-IC (measured many years before the occurrence of any CVD event) were associated with the risk of CVD over a 25-year period even after adjustment for other risk factors (including LDL cholesterol). Therefore, modified LDL biomarkers may help identify patients with T1D at high risk for MACCE and CVD events very early in the evolution of the disease, before other signals of disease are apparent.
Lopes-Virella, M., Bebu, I., Hunt, K., Virella, G., Baker, N., Braffett, B., Gao, X., & Lachin, J. (2019). Immune complexes and the risk of CVD in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 68 (9). http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-0358