Longitudinal Changes in Cardiac Structure and Function from Adolescence to Young Adulthood in Participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The TODAY Follow-Up Study

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Circulation: Heart Failure




cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; heart rate; risk factors


Background: Heart failure is a prominent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The goal of this study was to provide longitudinal data on cardiac structure and function (and cross-sectional comparison to normal-weight and obese controls without T2D) in individuals followed from adolescence with youth-onset T2D. Methods: In the TODAY study (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adolescents and Youth), echocardiograms were performed at study years 4 to 5 and 9 to 10. Echocardiograms were also obtained at years 8 to 9 in a control population of age, race/ethnicity, and sex-matched normal-weight and obese individuals without diabetes mellitus. Study outcomes were measures of left ventricular structure and function. The cohort included 411 participants with T2D, 194 obese controls, and 51 normal-weight controls. Results: At follow-up, mean participant age was 23 years, 65% women, 20% non-Hispanic white, 35% non-Hispanic black, and 39% Hispanic. Ejection fraction was <52% in 11.7% of male participants with T2D. Diastolic function declined during follow-up in participants with T2D (mitral valve lateral E/Em increased 0.72±0.12 in women and 0.50±0.17 in men; P<0.01) and was significantly higher than obese controls (women, 6.65±1.89 versus 5.66±1.37; men, 6.15±1.90 versus 5.26±1.31; P<0.0001). Predictors of adverse changes included hypertension, obesity, female sex, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black ethnicity, worse glycemic control, and elevated heart rate. Cardiac structural abnormalities, left ventricular hypertrophy, or concentric geometry, were highest in those with T2D (15.8% versus 5.7% obese versus 0% normal weight). Conclusions: Adverse changes in cardiac structure and function changed significantly from adolescence to early adulthood in participants with youth-onset T2D.