Document Type

DNP Project


School of Nursing

Date of Degree

Spring 2021


Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)

Primary Advisor

Qiuping (Pearl) Zhou, PhD, RN; Colleen Brooks, MBA


Hemorrhage; Bleeding control (BCon) knowledge; Education


Background: Rural residents are 14% more likely to die from an injury than their urban counterparts due to untimely and ineffective prehospital treatment, inequitable access to the most comprehensive trauma centers, and a lack of injury prevention programs. Although bystanders with bleeding control (BCon) knowledge and skills are vital to injury survival, only 0.5% of Idahoans have completed STOP THE BLEED®.

Purpose: Implement an evidence-based BCon course on how to identify and control life-threatening bleeding with pressure, packing, and tourniquets to increase willingness, confidence, and BCon knowledge, while decreasing concerns.

Methods: A pre-post same subject design was used. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling, with the exclusion of children ≤ 12 years of age. A 22-item survey was administered prior to, immediately after, and within four months of training. Descriptive statistics, McNemar’s test, and a paired t-test were used to analyze data.

Results: After training, participants (N = 33) were more likely to help a stranger (70% vs 96.7%; p = 0.021) and render aid without a BCon kit (60% vs 86.7%; p = 0.008). Confidence improved significantly (63.3% vs 96.7%; p = 0.002). The average number of concerns decreased from 2.17 before training to 1.63 immediately after (p = 0.047) and to 1.54 within four months (p = 0.006). BCon knowledge scores improved from 74.3% on the pretest to 91.0% on posttest #1 (p < 0.001) and remained 88.3% on posttest #2 (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: STOP THE BLEED® improved willingness, confidence, and BCon knowledge, while reducing concerns.

Open Access


Available for download on Tuesday, October 18, 2022

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Nursing Commons