Hypogonadism and prostate cancer detection on multiparametric MRI and mpMRI-TRUS fusion biopsy

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



International Urology and Nephrology








Hypogonadism; Image-guided biopsy; Magnetic resonance imaging; Prostatic neoplasms


© 2019, Springer Nature B.V. Purpose: Currently, there is a dearth of data concerning the impact of hypogonadism on prostate cancer detection by imaging. In this study, we evaluated the performance of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and mpMRI-TRUS fusion biopsy in hypogonadal patients. Materials and methods: Clinical and pathologic data from a prospectively maintained, single-institution database of patients who underwent 3T mpMRI and fusion biopsy between 2007 and 2016 were analyzed. Hypogonadism was defined by an institutional cutoff of serum testosterone ≤ 180 ng/dL; T2, DWI, and DCE scores were calculated from mpMRI. Cancer detection rates were compared by Chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to evaluate the impact of hypogonadism on clinically significant cancer detection by systematic and fusion biopsy. Results: We included 522 patients in our study who had total testosterone levels measured within 90 days of mpMRI. Of these, 49 (9.4%) were hypogonadal. Median total testosterone was 148 ng/dL (IQR 41) in the hypogonadal group, and 304 ng/dL (IQR 132) in the normogonadal group (p < 0.001). Imaging results were comparable between the hypo and normogonadal groups. In the hypogonadal group, systematic biopsy detected clinically significant cancer in 28.6% of patients compared to 40.8% with fusion biopsy. In the normogonadal cohort, systematic and fusion biopsy detected 37.3% and 43.2% CS cancer, respectively. In the hypogonadal cohort, fusion biopsy detected 12.2% more CS cancers compared to systematic biopsy, while it detected only 5.9% more in the normogonadal cohort. On multivariate analysis, hypogonadism was found to be an independent predictor of decreased CS cancer detection on systematic (p = 0.048), but not on fusion biopsy (p = 0.170). Conclusions: Hypogonadism is an independent predictor of lower CS cancer detection on systematic biopsy. However, it fails to significantly impact CS detection on fusion biopsy with comparable cancer detection rates in both groups. Patients with hypogonadism may benefit more from fusion biopsy than normogonadal patients.

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