Prospective Evaluation of Sacral Neuromodulation in Children: Outcomes and Urodynamic Predictors of Success

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Urology








electric stimulation; lower urinary tract symptoms; quality of life; questionnaires; urinary bladder


© 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Purpose Sacral neuromodulation has been demonstrated to improve refractory bowel bladder dysfunction in children. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether results are durable in children after longer followup, whether children with a lower body mass index are at risk for device failure and whether pretreatment urodynamic evaluation can predict posttreatment outcome. Materials and Methods Pediatric patients with refractory bowel bladder dysfunction were enrolled following informed consent and followed prospectively. All patients underwent preoperative videourodynamic evaluation and a 2-stage implantation procedure. Validated questionnaires were used to assess symptom severity and quality of life. Complications were analyzed with regard to treatment required and patient body mass index. Results During 45 months 30 patients were enrolled. Median age was 8.3 years at enrollment. Median followup was 14.8 months. Patients had significant improvement in quality of life and symptom scores, which persisted at the most recent followup. Patients who had uninhibited detrusor contractions on preoperative urodynamic assessment had significantly greater improvement in symptoms. Of the patients 23% had a complication requiring reoperation, most commonly neurostimulator lead breakage in those with a significantly lower body mass index. Conclusions Sacral neuromodulation significantly improves quality of life and symptom severity in children with refractory bowel bladder dysfunction. Children gain greater benefit if they show uninhibited bladder contractions on preoperative urodynamic evaluation. Children have a high rate of lead breakage requiring operative revision, which was seen after minor trauma in those with a lower body mass index.

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