The association of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome with nephrolithiasis
Current Opinion in Urology
Hypertension; metabolic syndrome; nephrolithiasis; obesity; vascular disease
Purpose of Review: This review describes the relationship between nephrolithiasis, vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Recent Findings: There is increasing evidence that kidney stone formation is associated with a number of systemic problems including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and its components. Some of these associations are bidirectional. The reasons for these associations are not totally clear, but potential factors include metabolic responses associated with these disorders that promote a stone forming milieu in urine, environmental factors such as diet, oxidative stress and inflammation and molecular changes impacting the transport of certain analytes in urine. Summary: Urologists need to be cognizant of these associations as they may be able to contribute to an early diagnosis of a significant medical problem, or provide counseling to patients to prevent their occurrence. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lange, J., Mufarrij, P., Wood, K., Holmes, R., & Assimos, D. (2012). The association of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome with nephrolithiasis. Current Opinion in Urology, 22 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOU.0b013e32834fc31f