Changing stone composition profile of children with nephrolithiasis
Objective: To determine if this trend toward calcium phosphate stone formation exists in children. Methods: This is a retrospective study of medical records of 179 children managed at our medical center from 1992-2010 for whom stone analysis and other pertinent laboratory data were available. A comparison of patients managed from 1992-2000 (P1) and 2001-2010 (P2) was undertaken. Statistical analysis included nonparametric tests. Results: There were no significant differences in the mean age of the 2 cohorts. During both periods, boys comprised a significantly higher proportion during the first decade of life, whereas girls comprised a significantly higher proportion during the second decade. A higher percentage of patients had calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones in P1 compared to P2 (60% vs 47%, P =.0019). There was a significant increase in the percentage of patients having calcium phosphate stones in P2 compared to P1 (27% vs 18.5%, P =.008). Twenty-seven patients had recurrent stones. A comparison of the compositions of the first and last stones of patients within this group demonstrated an increasing proportion of brushite stones (3.7% vs 11.1%, P =.04). Twenty-four hour urine testing results were similar for those with CaOx and calcium phosphate stones. Conclusion: An increasing proportion of children have calcium phosphate calculi. Brushite stones are more prevalent in children with recurrent stone events. The impetus of these shifts is not readily apparent. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Wood, K., Stanasel, I., Koslov, D., Mufarrij, P., McLorie, G., & Assimos, D. (2013). Changing stone composition profile of children with nephrolithiasis. Urology, 82 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2013.02.033