Immunotargets and Therapy
Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists represent potentially useful cancer vaccine adjuvants in their ability to stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and subsequently amplify the cytotoxic T-cell response. The purpose of this study was to characterize APC responses to TLR activation and to determine the subsequent effect on lymphocyte activation. We exposed murine primary bone marrow-derived macrophages to increasing concentrations of agonists to TLRs 2, 3, 4, and 9. This resulted in a dose-dependent increase in production of not only tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α), a surrogate marker of the proinflammatory response, but also interleukin 10 (IL-10), a well-described inhibitory cytokine. Importantly, IL-10 secretion was not induced by low concentrations of TLR agonists that readily produced TNF-α. We subsequently stimulated lymphocytes with anti-CD3 antibody in the presence of media from macrophages activated with higher doses of TLR agonists and observed suppression of interferon gamma release. Use of both IL-10 knockout macrophages and IL-10 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) ablated this suppressive effect. Finally, IL-10 siRNA was successfully used to suppress CpG-induced IL-10 production in vivo. We conclude that TLR-mediated APC stimulation can induce a paradoxical inhibitory effect on T-cell activation mediated by IL-10.
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Walk, R., Elliott, S., Blanco, F. C., Snyder, J. A., Jacobi, A. M., Rose, S., Behlke, M., Salem, A., Vukmanovic, S., & Sandler, A. D. (2012). T-cell activation is enhanced by targeting IL-10 cytokine production in toll-like receptor-stimulated macrophages. Immunotargets and Therapy, 1 (). http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ITT.S32615