Controversies and evidence for cardiovascular disease in the diverse Hispanic population
Journal of Vascular Surgery
© 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery Objective: Hispanics account for approximately 17% of the U.S. population. They are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups, second only to Asians. This heterogeneous population has diverse socioeconomic conditions, making the prevention, diagnosis, and management of vascular disease difficult. This paper discusses the cultural, racial, and social aspects of the Hispanic community in the United States and assesses how they affect vascular disease within this population. Furthermore, it explores risk factors, medical and surgical treatments, and outcomes of vascular disease in the Hispanic population; generational evolution of these conditions; and the phenomenon called the Hispanic paradox. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was performed to identify all English-language publications from 1991 to 2014 using PubMed, which draws from the National Institutes of Health and U.S. National Library of Medicine, with the words “cardiovascular disease,” “prevalence,” “vascular,” and “Hispanic.” An additional search was performed using “cardiovascular disease and Mexico,” “cardiovascular disease and Cuba,” “cardiovascular disease and Puerto Rico,” and “cardiovascular disease and Latin America” as well as for complications, management, outcomes, surgery, vascular disease, and Hispanic paradox. The resulting publications were queried for generational data (spanning multiple well-defined age groups) regarding cardiovascular disease, and cross-references were obtained from their bibliographies. Results are segmented by country of origin. Results: Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics face higher risks of cardiovascular diseases because of a high prevalence of high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic stroke. However, the incidence of peripheral arterial disease and carotid disease appears to be significantly lower than in whites. The Hispanic paradox (lower mortality in spite of higher cardiovascular risk factors) may relate to challenges in ascribing life expectancy and cause of death in this diverse population. Low socioeconomic status and high prevalence of concomitant diseases negatively influence the outcomes of all patients, independent of being Hispanic. Conclusions: Understanding the cultural diversity in Hispanics is important in terms of targeting preventive measures to modify cardiovascular risk factors, which affect development and outcomes of vascular disease. The available literature regarding vascular disease in the Hispanic population is limited, and further longitudinal study is warranted to improve health care delivery and outcomes in this group.
Shaw, P., Chandra, V., Escobar, G., Robbins, N., Rowe, V., & Macsata, R. (2018). Controversies and evidence for cardiovascular disease in the diverse Hispanic population. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 67 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.06.111