Late outcomes of balloon angioplasty and angioplasty with selective stenting for superficial femoral-popliteal disease are equivalent

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Vascular Surgery








Objective: Several trials have reported early superior patency of stenting over isolated angioplasty (plain old balloon angioplasty [POBA]) for infra-inguinal occlusive disease, yet long-term data are sparse. The purpose of this study was to contrast long-term clinical outcomes and costs of angioplasty alone vs angioplasty with selective stenting in the treatment of femoropopliteal occlusive disease. Methods: Patients undergoing primary endovascular treatments of the native femoropopliteal arteries from 2002 to 2009 were divided into two groups, POBA alone or stenting based on final treatment received at their index procedure. Study end points included actuarial 5-year primary patency (using strict criteria of any hemodynamic deterioration or return of symptoms), 5-year limb salvage, and 5-year survival and hospital costs. Results: Eight hundred twenty-four primary procedures were performed during the study interval; 517 (63%) were POBA and 307 (37%) were stenting. The mean follow-up duration was 33 months (range, 0-98 months). The indication for intervention in the stenting group was claudication in 71% of the patients, whereas the remaining 29% had critical limb ischemia (CLI). In the POBA cohort, the indication for treatment was claudication in 59% of the patients and CLI in the remaining 41%. A higher percentage of POBA lesions were TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II A & B when compared to stenting (91% POBA vs 73% stenting; P <.001). There was no difference in overall 5-year primary patency (POBA 36% ± 3%; stenting 41% ± 4%; P =.31), nor was there a difference in patients with claudication (POBA 42% ± 4%; stenting 45% ± 4%; P =.8). In patients with CLI, the 4-year primary patency was 27% ± 5% (POBA) vs 36% ± 8% (stenting), P =.22; the 4-year limb salvage was 80% ± 4% (POBA) vs 90% ± 5% (stenting), P =.18. There was no difference in survival between the two groups (claudication: 83% ± 3% POBA vs 84% ± 4% stenting at 5 years (P =.65), CLI: 44% ± 4% POBA vs 49% ± 6% stenting at 4 years (P =.40). Subgroup analysis by lesion anatomy showed similar primary patency between POBA and stenting for TASC II A & B lesions, while the primary patency was significantly higher at 5 years after stenting of TASC II C & D lesions (34% ± 6% vs 12% ± 9%; P <.05). Stenting increased the procedural cost by 57% when compared to POBA (P <.001) regardless of treatment indication. In addition, stenting added 45% (P <.001) to the overall hospital cost of patients treated for claudication. Conclusion: Stenting resulted in equivalent long-term outcomes compared to POBA when stratified by indications. However, stenting yielded statistically better primary patency in patients with TASC II C & D lesions. The lack of improved clinical outcomes and significantly higher cost of stenting supports a posture of selective use of stents (especially in TASC II A & B) in the endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal occlusive disease. © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery.

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