Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Transtuberculum Approach for Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma: Operative Video With 360-Degree Fly-Through and Surgical Rehearsal in Virtual Reality: 2-Dimensional Operative Video

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)








Endoscopic endonasal approach; Meningioma; Surgical rehearsal; Tuberculum sellae; Virtual reality


Copyright © 2020 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. This video demonstrates the technique of the "Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Transtuberculum Approach" and the utility of preoperative planning and surgical rehearsal in virtual reality (VR).  VR can be utilized to improve endoscopic skull base surgery in various ways. The patient is a 57-yr-old woman with sudden right abducens palsy. Transcranial surgery has been the gold-standard treatment of the tuberculum sellae meningioma that was found, but for suitable tumors, the endoscopic endonasal approach is equally effective for tumor resection with better visual outcomes.1-4  The three-dimensional, 360°, multicolored VR rendering (Surgical Theater SRP7.4.0, Cleveland, Ohio) of her tuberculum sellae meningioma clearly demonstrated that there was no encasement of the anterior cerebral arteries, the tumor did not extend lateral to the carotid arteries, and the surgical corridor was wide enough for endoscopic endonasal resection. The surgical exposure was then rehearsed with the sphenoidectomy and drilling of the sella floor and tuberculum performed in VR space. The step-by-step process of the endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum resection is demonstrated in the operative video.  Surgical planning in VR can be helpful to the early-career endoscopic surgeon. The three-dimensional renderings are quick to set up (15 min), and the examination of the anatomy is useful for choosing the surgical approach. Despite the lack of haptic feedback and tissue response such as vascularity and firmness in the current software, rehearsing the drilling for exposure can improve the efficiency in surgery.  Patient consent was obtained prior to the creation of the video and is available on request.

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