International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG): Consensus recommendations on the prenatal and perinatal management of anticipated airway obstruction

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology






Attended delivery; Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS); Delivery on placental support; Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT); Fetal head and neck mass; Micrognathia; Operation on placental support (OOPS)


© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Objective: To make recommendations on the identification, routine evaluation, and management of fetuses at risk for airway compromise at delivery. Methods: Recommendations are based on expert opinion by members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). A two-iterative Delphi method questionnaire was distributed to all members of the IPOG and responses recorded. The respondents were given the opportunity to comment on the content and format of the survey, which was modified for the second round. “Consensus” was defined by >80% respondent affirmative responses, “agreement” by 51–80% affirmative responses, and “no agreement” by 50% or less affirmative responses. Results: Recommendations are provided regarding etiologies of perinatal airway obstruction, imaging evaluation, adjunct evaluation, multidisciplinary team and decision factors, micrognathia management, congenital high airway obstruction syndrome management, head and neck mass management, attended delivery procedure, and delivery on placental support procedure. Conclusions: Thorough evaluation and thoughtful decision making are required to optimally balance fetal and maternal risks/benefits.

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