Quantitative outcomes of endoscopic strip craniectomy for metopic craniosynostosis in children with severe trigonocephaly

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Child's Nervous System




Endoscopic; Metopic synostosis; Trigonocephaly


© 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Purpose: To assess intermediate-term (> 3 years) outcomes of endoscopic strip craniectomy with postoperative helmet therapy (ESC + HT) for the treatment of infants with severe trigonocephaly. Methods: This retrospective study examined cranial morphology of consecutive patients with severe trigonocephaly treated with minimally invasive ESC + HT. Preoperative and follow-up clinical parameters were collected from patient charts. Interfrontal divergence angle (IFDA), a validated and accurate measure of forehead narrowing, was measured on preoperative CT scans and on preoperative and postoperative 2D photographs. Results: Seven patients (4 male, 3 female) were included with a mean age at surgery of 2.76 months (range 1.8 to 4.1 months) and mean clinical follow-up of 3.71 years (photographic follow-up 2.73 years). The mean operative time was 91.4 min, with a mean estimated blood loss (EBL) of 57.1 ml and mean hospital length of stay of 1.14 days. IFDA improved from 118.8° to 135.9° (p < 0.01), with the mean final measurement falling within normal limits. The head circumference percentile was not significantly changed in follow-up. There was a statistically significant improvement in the inner-to-outer canthal distance ratio (p = 0.01) in follow-up, showing an improvement in hypotelorism. There were no dural tears, CSF leaks, infections, or other significant surgical morbidities, and there were no serious complications related to the use of helmet therapy. All patients achieved excellent aesthetic results judged by photographic comparison. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients treated with ESC + HT for metopic craniosynostosis showed measurable and significant improvement in forehead shape. This technique is a safe and effective alternative to more invasive surgical interventions.

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