Continent appendicostomy in the bowel management of fecally incontinent children
Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Anorectal malformation; Appendicostomy; Incontinence; Malone procedure
Background: Fecal incontinence is common in children who have anorectal malformations, Hirschsprung's Disease, and spine bifida and can negatively impact their emotional and social development. Enemas have been used as an artificial way to keep children clean and to improve their quality of life. This method is unpleasant for many children, particularly when they reach adolescence. Malone in 1990 described an alternative method in which the appendix is used as a conduit to administer an antegrade enema. Methods: The authors describe their experience with this new procedure, modified by them, and used in 20 patients, in the original procedure, the base of the appendix is divided, inverted, and reimplanted into the cecum with an antireflux technique. The authors simplify this by plicating the cecum around the appendix to create a one-way valve mechanism but leaving the appendix in its original position. The authors also mobilize the cecum and exteriorize the appendix at the umbilicus to create an inconspicuous stoma. If the native appendix is absent a neoappendix was created from a flap of cecum. Results: Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) are now completely clean 24 hours a day. Stricture of the stoma occurred in two patients and required revision. Leakage at the appendicostomy site occurred in three patients, and two required a tighter plication. Conclusions: The technique is used to change the route of enema administration, and is only used in patients for whom bowel management with rectal enemas has been proven successful. The appendix must be preserved whenever possible in patients at risk for fecal incontinence.
Levitt, M., Soffer, S., & Peña, A. (1997). Continent appendicostomy in the bowel management of fecally incontinent children. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 32 (11). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3468(97)90470-X