Minimally invasive resynchronization pacemaker: A pediatric animal model
Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Purpose We developed a minimally invasive epicardial pacemaker implantation method for infants and congenital heart disease patients for whom a transvenous approach is contraindicated. The piglet is an ideal model for technical development. Description In 5 piglets we introduced a needle through subxiphoid approach under thoracoscopic guidance, inserting a wire into the pericardial space. Pacing leads were affixed to the left ventricular free wall and left atrial appendage. After verifying functionality with atrial and ventricular pacing and sensing, animals were euthanized. Pacemaker monitoring occurred daily for 4 days in the fifth animal. Evaluation Through minimally invasive pericardial access, we directly visualized and fixated pacing leads to the left ventricle and left atrial appendage, successfully pacing atrium and ventricle. Epicardial structures were visualized. One piglet had contralateral pneumothorax, which resolved with needle decompression. No other adverse events occurred. Conclusions Minimally invasive epicardial pacemaker implantation in an infant model is feasible and effective. This innovation may be of value for pacing and resynchronization in infants and congenital heart disease patients. Survival studies with permanent generator implantation are under way. © 2013 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Jordan, C., Wu, K., Costello, J., Ishibashi, N., Krieger, A., Kane, T., Kim, P., & Berul, C. (2013). Minimally invasive resynchronization pacemaker: A pediatric animal model. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 96 (6). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.07.057