Laparoscopic stereoscopic augmented reality: Toward a clinically viable electromagnetic tracking solution
Journal of Medical Imaging
Augmented reality; camera calibration; electromagnetic tracking; stereoscopic laparoscopy; ultrasound calibration
© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). The purpose of this work was to develop a clinically viable laparoscopic augmented reality (AR) system employing stereoscopic (3-D) vision, laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS), and electromagnetic (EM) tracking to achieve image registration. We investigated clinically feasible solutions to mount the EM sensors on the 3-D laparoscope and the LUS probe. This led to a solution of integrating an externally attached EM sensor near the imaging tip of the LUS probe, only slightly increasing the overall diameter of the probe. Likewise, a solution for mounting an EM sensor on the handle of the 3-D laparoscope was proposed. The spatial image-to-video registration accuracy of the AR system was measured to be 2.59±0.58 mm and 2.43±0.48 mm for the left-and right-eye channels, respectively. The AR system contributed 58-ms latency to stereoscopic visualization. We further performed an animal experiment to demonstrate the use of the system as a visualization approach for laparoscopic procedures. In conclusion, we have developed an integrated, compact, and EM tracking-based stereoscopic AR visualization system, which has the potential for clinical use. The system has been demonstrated to achieve clinically acceptable accuracy and latency. This work is a critical step toward clinical translation of AR visualization for laparoscopic procedures.
Liu, X., Kang, S., Plishker, W., Zaki, G., Kane, T., & Shekhar, R. (2016). Laparoscopic stereoscopic augmented reality: Toward a clinically viable electromagnetic tracking solution. Journal of Medical Imaging, 3 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.3.4.045001