A Study of VITOM in Pediatric Surgery and Urology: Evaluation of Technology Acceptance and Usability by Operating Team and Surgeon Musculoskeletal Discomfort

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques








Exoscope; Pediatric surgery; Pediatric urology; Surgeon musculoskeletal discomfort; Technology acceptance model; VITOM


© Copyright 2017, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2017. Introduction: We studied operating team acceptability of Video Telescopic Monitor (VITOM®) exoscope by exploring the ease of use of the device in two centers. We also assessed factors affecting surgeon musculoskeletal discomfort. Methods: We focused on how the operating team interacted with the VITOM system with surrogate measures of usefulness, image quality, ease of use, workload, and setup time. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the relationships between team role, experience, and setup time. Relationships between localized musculoskeletal discomfort and use of VITOM alone, and with loupes, were also analyzed. Results: Four surgeons, 7 surgical techs, 7 circulating nurses, and 13 surgical residents performed 70 pediatric surgical and urological operations. We found that subjective views of each team member were consistently positive with 69%-74% agreed or strongly agreed that VITOM enhanced their ability to perform their job and improved the surgical process. Unexpectedly, the scrub techs and nurses perceived more value and utility of VITOM, presumably because it provides them a view of the operative field that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Team members rated perceptions of image quality highly and workload generally satisfactory. Not surprisingly, setup time decreased with team experience and multivariable modeling showed significant correlations with surgeon and surgical tech experience, but not circulating nurse. An important finding was that surgeon neck discomfort was reduced with use of VITOM alone for magnification, compared with use of loupes and VITOM. The most likely explanation for these findings is improved posture with the neck at a neutral position when viewing the VITOM images, compared with neck flexion with loupes, and thus, a less favorable ergonomic position. Conclusion: This study suggests that there may be small drawbacks associated with VITOM use initially, but these reduce with increased experience and benefit both the surgeon and the rest of the team.

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