National Estimates and Factors Influencing Trauma Recidivism in Children Leading to Hospital Readmission

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of Pediatric Surgery








Outcomes; Pediatrics; Predictors; Readmissions; Recidivism; Trauma


© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Introduction: Trauma is the leading cause of mortality in children. Factors influencing recidivism after major trauma have not been well documented in children. The objective of this study is to determine the burden of pediatric trauma recidivism and to identify predisposing factors in the United States. Methods: The 2010–2015 National Readmissions Database was queried for pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) with a diagnosis of major traumatic injuries. Patients readmitted for major trauma were subsequently identified. Patients that did not survive their index-hospitalization were excluded. Information on mechanism, intent, nature and injury severity including Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) was obtained. Multivariable-regression analyses were performed adjusting for demographic, hospital-level and injury characteristics. Results: Of 286,508 pediatric trauma records analyzed, trauma recidivists represented 2.9% of the total population. Recidivists had a higher proportion of severe (AIS ≥ 3) head injury (11.3%). Recidivists were more likely to have public-insurance (OR [95% CI]:1.30[1.25–1.37]), and belong to lower income families (OR [95% CI]:1.22[1.15–1.31]). Recidivism was more common amongst patients with penetrating injuries (OR [95% CI]:2.12[1.96–2.28]). The risk adjusted cost of readmission for trauma was $8401[95% CI: 6748-10,053] higher compared to the index hospitalization with a total increased cost of 11.5 million USD annually. Conclusion: Although not common, recidivism after major trauma remains a significant public-health concern. This study gauges the previously unquantified burden of recidivism amongst children and identifies factors predisposing to recurrent trauma. Level of Evidence: III Type of Evidence: Case control study

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