Renovascular hypertension in children: Current concepts in Evaluation and treatment
Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Since 1981, we have evaluated and treated 22 children with renovascular hypertension (RVH). Seventeen patients had stenosis of their native renal arteries, and five had stenosis of the artery in a transplanted kidney. RVH was caused by fibromuscular dysplasia in 13 patients, by trauma in 2 patients, and by arteritis in 2 patients. Among the patients who had transplanted kidneys, three had technical causes for stenosis and two had stenosis due to rejection. The disease was unilateral in 10 patients, bilateral in 5, and present in a solitary kidney in 7, including the five renal transplants. Diagnostic studies that strongly suggested the presence of renovascular disease were an initial diastolic blood pressure greater than 100 mm Hg, an elevated peripheral vein renin activity level, and an abnormal renal scan if the patient's hypertension was being controlled with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). Only the renal arteriogram was 100% accurate in confirming the presence of RVH. Percutaneous angiographic correction was attempted in 13 patients and resulted in lasting improvement of the hypertension in five (38%). Surgical revascularization was attempted in 17 children, including the 8 with failed angioplasty, with improvement or cure of the hypertension in 15 patients (88%). Combining percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and surgical results gave 20 of 22 patients (91%) with cure or improvement of their hypertension. Four of 27 affected kidneys (15%) could not be revascularized and were removed. We conclude from this series of patients that despite improvements in noninvasive studies, renal arteriogram remains the only study that is 100% accurate in evaluating children for RVH. We believe that all children with a diagnosis of RVH should have correction of the stenotic lesion. PTA has given excellent long-term results in a selected group of patients. Most children will come to surgical repair with a high likelihood of cure of their hypertension and preservation of their involved kidney. © 1989 W.B. Saunders Company.
Guzzetta, P., Potter, B., Ruley, E., Majd, M., & Bock, G. (1989). Renovascular hypertension in children: Current concepts in Evaluation and treatment. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 24 (12). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3468(89)80558-5