Compliance with barrier precautions during paediatric trauma resuscitations
Barrier precautions; Paediatric resuscitation; Trauma; Universal precautions
Purpose: Barrier precautions protect patients and providers from blood-borne pathogens. Although barrier precaution compliance has been shown to be low among adult trauma teams, it has not been evaluated during paediatric resuscitations in which perceived risk of disease transmission may be low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with compliance with barrier precautions during paediatric trauma resuscitations. Methods: Video recordings of resuscitations performed on injured children (<18 years old) were reviewed to determine compliance with an established policy requiring gowns and gloves. Depending on activation level, trauma team members included up to six physicians, four nurses, and a respiratory therapist. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the effect of team role, resuscitation factors, and injury mechanism on barrier precaution compliance. Results: Over twelve weeks, 1138 trauma team members participated in 128 resuscitations (4.7% penetrating injuries, 9.4% highest level activations). Compliance with barrier precautions was 81.3%, with higher compliance seen among roles primarily at the bedside compared to positions not primarily at the bedside (90.7% vs 65.1%, p<0.001). Bedside residents (98.4%) and surgical fellows (97.6%) had the highest compliance, while surgical attendings (20.8%) had the lowest (p<0.001). Controlling for role, increased compliance was observed during resuscitations of patients with penetrating injuries (OR=3.97 [95% CI: 1.35-11.70], p=0.01), during resuscitations triaged to the highest activation level (OR=2.61 [95% CI: 1.34-5.10], p=0.005), and among team members present before patient arrival (OR=4.14 [95% CI: 2.29-7.39], p<0.001). Conclusions: Compliance with barrier precautions varies by trauma team role. Team members have higher compliance when treating children with penetrating and high acuity injuries and when arriving before the patient. Interventions integrating barrier precautions into the workflow of team members are needed to reduce this variability and improve compliance with universal precautions during paediatric trauma resuscitations. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Kelleher, D., Carter, E., Waterhouse, L., & Burd, R. (2013). Compliance with barrier precautions during paediatric trauma resuscitations. Resuscitation, 84 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.07.020