Follow-up after gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Journal of the American College of Surgeons








Background Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is used to treat medically refractory gastroparesis. However, there are few large series with outcomes beyond 12 months. This study reports surgical outcomes of GES for patients up to 8 years receiving treatment from a single institution.Study Design A prospective database was reviewed from 2003 to 2013 for patients undergoing GES. Baseline patient characteristics were recorded, including age, sex, cause of gastroparesis, gastric emptying, and Hgb A1C. Outcomes variables included nutrition supplementation, additional operations, 30-day morbidity, and mortality. Pre- and postoperative pain and function scores are analyzed over time using generalized estimating equations. Patient outcomes in terms of reoperation rates and types of operations are also reviewed.Results Seventy-nine patients underwent GES with a mean ± SD age of 43 ± 11 years and a BMI of 27 ± 8 kg/m2. Symptom scores were available for 60 patients: 60 patients at baseline, 52 patients at 1 year, 14 patients during years 2 to 3, and 18 patients during years 4 to 8. Symptom scores decreased considerably in all categories. At 1-year follow-up, 44% and 31% of patients had at least a 25% reduction in symptom distress for functional and pain symptoms, respectively. Preoperatively, 9 patients required nutrition supplementation. After implantation, 34 (43%) patients underwent additional operations, with a mean of 2.15 operations per patient. Generator-related causes were the most common indication for reoperation, including battery exchanges and relocation. Other operations included 8 gastrectomies and 7 median arcuate ligament releases. Postoperatively, 4 patients required supplemental nutrition. There were no 30-day mortalities, but 11 patients died during the study period.Conclusions Gastric electrical stimulation was significantly associated with reductions in both functional and pain-related symptoms of gastroparesis. Patients who undergo GES have a high likelihood of additional surgery.

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