A modified directional atherectomy catheter for resection of calcified atherosclerotic plaques
Coronary Artery Disease
atherectomy; atherosclerosis; calcium; coronary artery disease
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of resecting calcified atherosclerotic plaques in human cadaveric vessels by using a modified directional coronary atherectomy catheter and to correlate these results with bench tests using an in-vitro sea coral model. Methods: The conventional directional coronary atherectomy catheter was modified by changing the cutter blade to a tungsten carbide material and by increasing the torsional strength of the drive cable. The performance of the modified directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) catheter was compared with the conventional catheter using a sea coral model to simulate calcified material. Then, 10 human ex-vivo arteries (eight with calcification) were treated with both conventional and modified catheters, and the results studied with intravascular ultrasound and confirmed by histologic examination. Results: Using the modified directional coronary atherectomy catheter it was possible to perform effective and consistent longitudinal cutting, and to resect a significantly larger amount of coral (1.0±0.1 mm2 versus 0.2±0.1 mm2 with conventional cutter, P<0.0001). In heavily calcified ex-vivo arteries, the modified catheter was more effective in removing calcified plaques (13±11 mg versus 3.7±1.4 mg with conventional cutter, P=0.07). Intravascular ultrasound confirmed the effective atherectomy (residual area stenosis 28±16% versus 47±10% with the conventional device, P<0.05), and histologic examination showed calcified nodules in the atherectomy samples obtained with the modified cutter (area of calcium 1.43±0.89 mm2 versus 0.93±0.83 mm2 with the conventional cutter). Conclusions: The modified directional coronary atherectomy catheter effectively removed both non-calcified and calcified plaques in the ex-vivo human cadaveric arteries, thus demonstrating the feasibility of directional coronary atherectomy of calcified plaques. This modified device shows promise for treating calcified coronary lesions, especially in larger vessels.
Hong, M., Wong, S., Mintz, G., Farb, A., Kent, K., Pichard, A., Satler, L., Popma, J., Sidawy, A., Virmani, R., & Leon, M. (1995). A modified directional atherectomy catheter for resection of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Coronary Artery Disease, 6 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00019501-199504000-00011