Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: The Strong Heart Study
American Journal of Epidemiology
Albuminuria; Arterial occlusive diseases; Atherosclerosis; Blood pressure; Diabetes mellitus; Fibrinogen; Indians, North American; Smoking
Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.
Fabsitz, R., Sidawy, A., Go, O., Lee, E., Welty, T., Devereux, R., & Howard, B. (1999). Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: The Strong Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 149 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009817