Protocol and technique of dialysis ultrasound surveillance

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis: A Practical Guide to Therapy: Second Edition




Surgery for access for hemodialysis (HD) is the most commonly performed vascular surgical operation in the United States, predominantly due to a steady rise in the incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite a concomitant increase in the mean age of these patients and more coexisting morbidities, advances in the management of renal failure and dialysis have resulted in longer survival among patients on HD. However, the 'Achilles heel' for these patients remains access, with poor patency rates resulting in multiple interventions for thrombosis and maintenance, and, in many patients, the eventual need for life-long catheter placement. Access failure is the second leading cause of hospitalization among patients with ESRD, and the annual cost of access maintenance is estimated to be $1 billion in the United States.1 © 2007 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

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