ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® Clinically Suspected Adnexal Mass, No Acute Symptoms

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of the American College of Radiology








Adnexal mass; Appropriate Use Criteria; Appropriateness Criteria; Asymptomatic; AUC; MRI; Postmenopausal; Premenopausal; Ultrasound


© 2019 American College of Radiology There are approximately 9.1 pelvic surgeries performed for every histologically confirmed adnexal malignancy in the United States, compared to 2.3 surgeries per malignancy (in oncology centers) and 5.9 surgeries per malignancy (in other centers) in Europe. An important prognostic factor in the long-term survival in patients with ovarian malignancy is the initial management by a gynecological oncologist. With high accuracy of imaging for adnexal mass characterization and consequent appropriate triage to subspecialty referral, the better use of gynecologic oncology can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and duplex ultrasound, combined with MRI with contrast can diagnose adnexal masses as benign with specific features (ie, functional masses, dermoid, endometrioma, fibroma, pedunculated fibroid, hydrosalpinx, peritoneal inclusion cyst, Tarlov cyst), malignant, or indeterminate. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

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