ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date



Journal of the American College of Radiology








Appropriate Use Criteria; Appropriateness Criteria; AUC; Choriocarcinoma; Gestational trophoblastic disease; Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; Invasive mole; Molar pregnancy; Placental site trophoblastic tumor


© 2019 American College of Radiology Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a rare complication of pregnancy, includes both benign and malignant forms, the latter collectively referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). When metastatic, the lungs are the most common site of initial spread. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, elaborated to some extent by all forms of GTD, is useful in facilitating disease detection, diagnosis, monitoring treatment response, and follow-up. Imaging evaluation depends on whether GTD manifests in one of its benign forms or whether it has progressed to GTN. Transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound with duplex Doppler evaluation of the pelvis are usually appropriate diagnostic procedures in either of these circumstances, and in posttreatment surveillance. The appropriateness of more extensive imaging remains dependent on a diagnosis of GTN and on other factors. The use of imaging to assess complications, typically hemorrhagic, should be guided by the location of clinical signs and symptoms. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

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