Blockade of glutamate-mediated activity in the developing retina perturbs the functional segregation of ON and OFF pathways
Journal of Neuroscience
Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; Ganglion cells; Inner plexiform layer; ON/OFF responses; Retina
The dendrites of ganglion cells initially ramify throughout the inner plexiform layer of the developing retina before becoming stratified into ON or OFF sublaminae. This ontogenetic event is thought to depend on glutamate- mediated afferent activity, because treating the developing retina with the glutamate analog 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB), which hyperpolarizes ON cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells, thereby preventing their release of glutamate, effectively arrests the dendritic stratification process. To assess the functional consequences of this manipulation, extracellular recordings were made from single cells in the A laminae of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and from the optic tract in mature cats that had received intraocular injections of APB during the first postnatal month. Such recordings revealed that stimulation of the APB-treated eye evoked both ON as well as OFF discharges in 37% of the cells tested. (As expected, when the normal eye was activated, virtually all cells yielded only ON or OFF responses). The proportion of ON-OFF cells found here corresponds closely to the incidence of multistratified dendrites observed previously in anatomical studies of APB-treated cat retinas. This suggests that the ganglion cells with multistratified dendrites receive functional inputs from ON as well as OFF cone bipolar cells. This interpretation is further supported by the finding that the proportion of ON-OFF cells was very similar in the geniculate layer innervated by the treated eye and in the optic tract. The cells activated by the APB-treated eye were also found not to show response suppression when flashing stimuli of increasing size were used. This suggests that exposing the developing retina to APB perturbs the neural circuitry mediating the antagonistic center-surround organization found in normal receptive fields. The functional changes evident after treating the developing retina with APB suggest that it should now be feasible to assess how the segregation of ON and OFF retinal pathways relates to organizational features at higher levels of the visual system, such as orientation selectivity in cortical cells.
Bisti, S., Gargini, C., & Chalupa, L. (1998). Blockade of glutamate-mediated activity in the developing retina perturbs the functional segregation of ON and OFF pathways. Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (13). http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.18-13-05019.1998