Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s) for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification) mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation) that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research.
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Yiu, A.J., Callaghan, D., Sultana, R., Bandyopadhyay, B.C. (2015). Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease, 2(3), 141-164.